Tricia Christensen

On-base plus slugging (OPS) is a baseball statistic that attempts to measure a player"s offensive sầu performance. Specifically, it combines on-base percentage (OBP) & slugging percentage (SLG).

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Many people look at OPS as a valuable tool for assessing the offensive sầu skill of a player. On the other hvà, critics say that it undervalues on-base percentage and over-values extra-base hits, thus misrepresenting a hitter"s value to lớn his team.

**Components of On-base plus Slugging (OPS)**

The first component of OPS is on-base percentage (OBP), which measures a player"s ability lớn get safely on base.

A player"s on-base percentage is the sum of hits (H); walks, or bases on balls (BB); & times hit by a pitch (HBP), divided by the sum of official at-bats (AB), walks, sacrifice flies (SF) and times hit by a pitch. The formula looks like this:

**OBP = (H + BB + HBP) / (AB + BB + SF + HBP)**The other component of OPS is slugging percentage (SLG), which measures a player"s ability to lớn get hits, especially extra-base hits (ie. doubles, triples, & home page runs).

In baseball, on-base plus slugging (OPS) is a measure of offensive performance.

Slugging percentage is calculated by dividing the total bases (TB) a player achieves on hits by the number of official at-bats (AB). A single (1B) is one base, a double (2B) is two bases, a triple (3B) is three bases, and a trang chính run (HR) is four bases. The formula for slugging percentage is simple:

**SLG = TB / AB**

The slugging percentage formula can also be written this way:

**SLG = (1B + (2 x 2B) + (3 x 3B) + (4 x HR)) / AB**

**Calculating OPS**

On-base plus slugging is simply the player"s on-base percentage plus his slugging percentage. The formula can be written simply as:

**OPS = OBP.. + SLG**A longer version of the OPS formula, with all of the components included, can be written as:

**OPS = AB(H + BB + HBP) + TB(AB + BB + SF + HBP) / AB(AB + BB + SF + HBP)**Did You Know?Among mỏi active sầu players, the career OPS leader is Mike Trout of the Los Angeles Angels, who has an OPS of .9999 as of June 20trăng tròn.

**OPS vs. Batting Average**

OPS is the sum of a player's on-base percentage (OBP) và slugging percentage (SLG). Many people consider OPS to be useful for measuring a batter"s skills. Getting on base without an out being recorded correlates well with helping a team score runs. This is true no matter how the player gets on base, which is why on-base percentage is often considered a better measure of a batter"s contributions to the team than batting average, which is calculated by dividing the number of hits by the number of at-bats. Batting average, for example, doesn"t give sầu the batter credit for drawing a walk.

The average OPS in Major League Baseball is about .750, although this fluctuates from season to season.

OPS also rewards a batter"s ability to lớn get hits, especially extra-base hits, by including slugging percentage as a component. A double is usually more valuable to a team than a single, và this is reflected in the OPS formula. Home runs are the most valuable type of hit, so the OPS formula gives them the most weight.

**OPS in Major League Baseball**

In Major League Baseball, the average OPS is about .750, although this fluctuates from season to season, and can be especially dependent on the strength of MLB pitchers in a particular year.

An OPS of 1.000 is considered outstanding for a major league player. In most seasons, only a few players who have batted more than 500 times achieve an OPS of 1.000. As of 20đôi mươi, just seven players in MLB history have sầu retired with a career OPS of 1.000 or better. The career OPS record is held by slugger Babe Ruth, who had a career OPS of 1.1636 when he retired in 1935.

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**MLB players who retired with a career OPS of 1.000 or better:**Babe Ruth (1.1636) Ted Williams (1.1155) Lou Gehrig (1.0798) Barry Bonds (1.0512) Jimmie Foxx (1.0376) Hank Greenberg (1.0169) Rogers Hornsby (1.0103)

**OPS Outside of the Major Leagues**

At lower levels of baseball, such as in high school or youth leagues, highly skilled players are often able lớn achieve much higher averages in various batting statistics, including OPS. This is because there is a much wider range in the skill levels of batters & pitchers at this level than in the major leagues. For example, a great high school hitter might face lesser-skilled pitchers on a regular basis, whereas a major league hitter will usually face very talented pitchers.

Therefore, at lower levels of baseball, players are more accurately assessed by comparing their statistics khổng lồ those of their peers, rather than to lớn those of major league players.

**Criticisms of OPS**

Although many people consider OPS lớn be a useful tool, critics have pointed out several potential shortcomings of this statistic. These relate lớn how valuable a hitter"s various outcomes are lớn the team and how well certain statistics correlate khổng lồ a team"s success. For example, on-base percentage (OBP) is more directly linked to team success than slugging percentage (SLG), but the OPS formula gives the two statistics equal weight.

Another criticism of OPS is specifically pertains to lớn the formula for slugging percentage (SLG). According to lớn the SLG formula, a double is worth twice as much as a single, a triple is worth three times as much, và so on. In terms of value to the team, however, the difference between the types of hits has been found khổng lồ be much less.

Depending on the method used lớn calculate the value of each type of hit khổng lồ the team, a double has been found to be worth only about 40% lớn 60% more than a single, with a triple being worth about 70% to lớn 130% more and a trang chủ run worth about 120% to lớn 200% more. Thus, slugging percentage, and therefore OPS, is considered by some critics to lớn overvalue extra-base hits.

Tricia ChristensenTricia has a Literature degree from Sonoma State University & has been a frequent tamquoccola.comcontributor for many years. She is especially passionate about reading và writing, although her other interests includemedicine, art, film, history, politics, ethics, và religion. Tricia lives in Northern California & is currentlyworking on her first novel.

Tricia Christensen

Tricia has a Literature degree from Sonoma State University & has been a frequent tamquoccola.comcontributor for many years. She is especially passionate about reading & writing, although her other interests includemedicine, art, film, history, politics, ethics, & religion. Tricia lives in Northern California và is currentlyworking on her first novel.

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Baseball is basically a boring sport these days. It takes too long for little real action. That is my opinion as lớn why so many statistics are being created; it gives "fans" something khổng lồ vì chưng during the time between real action on the field. anon336284 May 27, 2013 I can see it being useful to lớn have one or two guys that can do it all, but a lineup needs role players too. I wouldn"t really care about my lead-off or second hitter"s SLG.I vị like that it weighs singles more heavily than walks, which is relevant for a producer. A single is certainly better with runners on base. But again, this doesn"t really apply to a lead-off hitter.The 1987 Cardinals were a good example of a well built offense that only needed one svào OPS guy (Jaông chồng Clark at 1.055, everyone else under .800) và they made it khổng lồ game seven of the World Series. As a team, they led the National League in OBPhường., and all teams in SB. They were ninth out of 12 National League teams in OPS, but second in runs. And it doesn"t hurt khổng lồ have the best fielding percentage in the National League, và the greathử nghiệm shortstop ever. anon220731 October 8, 2011 Stat categories will have sầu their fans and their critics. It"s kind of pointless khổng lồ argue about it. Either you lượt thích it or you vì chưng not. Personally, I like OPS & use it in place of AVG when playing fantasy baseball. anon196897 July 15, 2011 TB / AB supposedly equals slugging average. Total bases were determined by the accumulation of recorded hits. And four bases are possible for every at-bat. And hits divided by those at-bats determines the batting average. And total bases reflect the number of bases negotiated.So, Ruth had a SA of almost .690. How? Hits and the batting average have not been used in the formula. Neither is the fact 4 bases are possible in a hit. So, total bases divided by 4 x at-bats, và the divided by the batting average reflects a true SA. 5,793 / 33,596; then divided by .342 equals .504. .690 means he averaged 69 percent of a bases per at-bat -- it does not reflect the average form size of a hit. .504 means he averaged 50.4 percent of four bases possible per at-bat bases -- or 2.016 bases of four bases possible, meaning it was slightly greater than a double. What form size hit does 69 percent of an at-bat reflect? anon181487 May 29, 2011 Slugging average used in OPS is a flawed statistic. For instance, Babe Ruth"s traditional SA is .690.. It is actually .504. anon180946 May 27, 2011 OPS has no meaning. It is the sum of a flawed SA và OBP.. The values could be .500 và .300 or .300 & .500, both totaling .800 but one emphasizing slugging và the other OBP. However, SA is actually the measure of an a-bat in terns of bases negotiated; whereas OBPhường is the measure of plate appearances in terms of hits, walks và HBP.. the summing of the two is not only incompatible there is also a partial duplication pertaining to lớn hits và total bases.A more sensible formula would be extra bases plus the numerator for the formula for OBP, all divided by the denominator for OBPhường. But it still is incompatible. anon178996 May 22, 2011 SA is a flawed statistic. Consequently so is OPS và a number of other stats. anon163439 March 27, 2011 To anon105929: I lượt thích your idea for BG-Rate as a measure of a player’s probable value. Didn’t look at it real cđại bại, but it’s balanced, sort of a combination of RBIs (without requiring a run to lớn be scored) and slugging percentage, with a bonus for speed (stolen bases) and a negative sầu for overreaching (caught stealing). Certainly it’s an improvement on slugging percentage, và it seems to be an improvement on OPS, although Bill James could probably prove sầu statistically why it isn’t.The method of giving credit for clutch-hitting makes sense, too. Now if you have a few years to put into lớn it, you could validate its usefulness by running it for every Major League player since 1900 & comparing how it ranks them with how we intuitively rank them. Oh, you might also have lớn group hitters inlớn eras to tài khoản for low mound/high mound, dead ball/live ball, steroid/non-steroid play. Also, I don’t think you can practically find the information about lớn reconstruct historical numbers. Not easy khổng lồ know how often Ty Cobb singled with two men on base, or doubled with the bases loaded. I think this could only be used prospectively.I’ve sầu been away from baseball và Bill James for several years, so I wasn’t familiar with OPS or OPS-plus. Personally, I think your method makes more sense, although it’s true that both (& also slugging percentage) count each extra base as the same value as a single, which intuitively doesn’t seem khổng lồ be right. A gr& slam is also probably not worth 10 singles, either, which is what your method suggests. A dedicated statistician could bởi vì the math and figure out what the relative values are. I wonder why Bill J.Still, as a tool for comparison/evaluation of players, that may be trying lớn cut things too finely. Once the scale is phối (maybe 4.000 is a great player?) then the hot stove league and young player comparisons/evaluations should still be relevant. I would guess that power hitters would get a boost over singles hitters, và power hitters who hit for average, too, would move sầu even further ahead.George Brett would lead Tony Gwynn in BG-Rate, & it looks like Barry Bonds and Mike Schmidt would finish ahead of both of them. Babe Ruth is going to lớn come out on top of any danh sách where power is given a bonus. anon110845 10 hours ago The most important number in batting is the ability of the hitter to lớn pop the ball between the legs of a fielder, và other seeing eye batting techniques. Think Bill Buckner"s experience against the Mets, on Mookie Wilson"s seeing eye grounder. Also important is a batter"s ability to crunch the Baltimore Chop, hit a pebble, & make fielding difficult. Think Carl Furillo pounding the ball inkhổng lồ the ground, Felix Mantilla not being able khổng lồ come up with the ball properly in order lớn make the throw. As Vin Scully called it, "...we go to lớn Chicago!" The Braves didn"t get to go to lớn the Series in "59. The Dodgers did, all because Carl Furillo had good bat control. The stat should be called BCSE--Baltimore Chop Seeing Eye. When a batter sprays the ball behind an infielder rushing in to lớn grab an anticipated bunt, wow. Fabulous BCSE! anon105929 August 23, 2010 Here"s an idea. Have sầu a new metric called BG-Rate defined as bases gained/plate appearances.This accounts for clutch hitting which isn"t accounted for in the OPS but is accounted for in the RBI. The idea is that you get credit for moving runners. If you hit a single with a runner on first & second you add three to lớn your BG-Rate. It also solves all the ugly math with sacrifices. So if you bunt those same runners over you add two to your BG-Rate. You can even add steals inkhổng lồ the phối easily since a single and a stolen base can count two, just lượt thích a double.There still should be some way khổng lồ score the number of pitches that a batter typically makes a pitcher throw. For instance, I would say a player with an OPS of 900 whose made the pitchers throw 1000 pitches is better than the player who made the pitcher throw 100. anon100862 July 31, 2010 DEF. On base P-lus S-lugging (OPS) is a sabermetric baseball statistic. anon94700 July 9, 2010 The only stat that counts is how many zeroes are at the over of your paykiểm tra. anon90468 June 16, 2010 "Two offensive stats really matter: runs & RBI. The rest is complication. "I completely agree with this statement. anon89906 16 hours ago It makes me laugh that people think the article does not explain what OPS stands for when it is the very first sentence of the article. why oh why did the author hide the answer in the first sentence? please explain. anon85242 May 19, 2010 Anon35678: Yeah, anything can happen in baseball, just lượt thích any other sport, but the point of numbers is to lớn get a sense of the odds that you have sầu and the odds that are against of something happening. Would you want a no name player who has low numbers or (let"s say) Alex Rodriguez who has a history of power numbers? Odds say that you"re more likely to lớn persize better by having someone that has performed in the past. Numbers will never tell you that a person will get injured, will start stinking or any other concept detrimental khổng lồ a winning season but they do give sầu you a range of odds of it happening & one manages from that point. That"s why baseball isn"t about coaching; it"s about managing. anon79703 April 23, 2010 the guy who said "Two offensive sầu stats really matter: runs and RBI. The rest is complication" could not be more wrong. RBI is the most useless statistic in baseball. anon79003 April 21, 2010 You guys are all crazy. It"s all about fantasy baseball. Who cares about OPS in my league. My league cares about all the stats that are taken or counted in a game. Not the averages that are statistically made with the stats that are counted in the game though. We than give sầu a value to the stats:Batters Stat Category Value Games Played (GP) 0 At Bats (AB) -1 Runs (R) 5 Singles (1B) 6 Doubles (2B) 11 Triples (3B) 16 Home Runs (HR) 21 Runs Batted In (RBI) 5 Sacrifice Hits (SH) 3 Sacrifice Flies (SF) 3 Stolen Bases (SB) 10 Caught Stealing (CS) -5 Walks (BB) 3 Intentional Walks (IBB) 0 Hit By Pitch (HBP) 3 Than you add them all up for each player & divide them by the amount of games played. You will than get a batter"s offensive sầu fantasy worth per game. Albert Pujols is pretty much the best fantasy player offensively and what vị you know? He does have sầu the best ops as well. Well maybe ops isn"t that bad of a measurement, but fantasy points per game is all us men at trang chủ care about. anon77294 4 hours ago edhones (6) asked what OPS means, not for the equation. OPS is an acronym for what? Overly Preoccupied Statistician? anon57667 December 25, 2009 I coach high school baseball và I use a system of rating my hitters with three averages. Batting average plus On base percentage plus Runs produced pct. divided by total at bats.Runs produced pct. is total runs scored plus runs batted in, divided by total at bats.It works really well for our program. anon51027 November 2, 2009 Two offensive sầu stats really matter: runs & RBI. The rest is complication. anon47409 October 4, 2009 there is only one statistic that has any true impact on the outcome of the game and that is total runs. As long as score is measured in runs this will be true. anon45433 September 16, 2009 you guys crack me up, but i enjoyed reading all the comments & math problems. but i think just the basic stats like ab"s, hits, runs, rbi"s, etc. say the most. and the players who get inkhổng lồ the hall of fame sometimes get there because of their popularity and stats sometimes don"t really matter for an in-between player. So going crazy with OPS if it"s better or worse will just drive sầu you all crazy. just go by the raw numbers. anon40589 August 9, 2009 An at bat doesn"t include BB or Sacs so why are these included in the statistics? anon40347 August 7, 2009 Thanks for explanation.I am a "statistician" and would like khổng lồ point out that you are missing some parenthesis in your formulas. Also, a more transparent way khổng lồ write your master formula might beOPS = OBP + SLG = (H+BB+HBP)/(AB+BB+SF+HBP) + TB/AB anon36625 6 hours ago Another factor is whether there are men on base when the batter is up. The pressure factor of driving in runs (after all, runs are what winning is all about)plays into the greatness of a player. anon35678 July 7, 2009 this is the first i"ve actually found out what ops means, & on face it seems lượt thích a very effective way of evaluating a hitter. i, by all means, don"t clalặng khổng lồ be a statistician (spelling), but it does seem slightly flawed, particularly after reading anon17198"s article. i would sum it up in a short sentence: There is truly no way khổng lồ evaluate how well any one player can hit. there are too many factors that go into lớn it, granted many of these factors can be put into lớn statistics, such as obp versus left handed & right handed hitters, and one can even break that down khổng lồ curveballs, fastballs, changeups, sliders, etc. that the hitter faces & winds up connecting, getting walked, or getting hit by. it comes down to lớn the fact that anything can happen in baseball, or all of sports for that matter, & there is no absolute way of evaluating how well one particular hitter can perkhung. anon25831 February 4, 2009 It is true that the article on o.p.s. does not tell us what us what it means (it doesn’t even make clear what the initials o.p.s. st& for: On-base pct. Plus Slugging pct.?)The o.p.s. is based on the fact (at least I accept it as fact) that the basic unit of offense is the base; that’s why an error is charged for giving a runner a base. Two bases are worth more than one base, though not twice as valuable (a mathematician or statistician could figure out the precise value in terms of run production very quickly). The o.p.s., then, tells us how many bases a player will earn, on average, each time he walks lớn the plate.The batting average tells us what pct. of his at-bats will produce hits; the slugging pct. tells us how many bases he will produce with those hits. The o.p.s. tells us on what pct. of at-bats he will get to lớn first or beyond, all together.It is therefore a good và telling stat. However, its weakness is that it does not factor in other methods of advancing around the bases: stolen bases &, possibly, balks (often induced by the runner). Ricky Henderson và Lou Broông xã are quite a bit more valuable than their o.p.s. suggests. edhones August 30, 2008 I read the article on OPS and still can"t figure out what it stands for. It tells me how khổng lồ figure it out, but not what it means. anon17198 August 24, 2008 I would lượt thích to lớn phản hồi about a few of the assumptions. The article states "Generally the OPS of a good player is considered khổng lồ be around .900 to lớn .950." A lot of analysts feel an OPS of 800 or over is a good player, and that 900 or higher is a very good, very-high impact kind of player. Very few players can consistently produce at 900 OPS or higher year in & year out, though some obviously vày.There are only a handful of players who eclipse an OPS of 900 in a given year yet there a "good" offensive sầu players who are more consistently in the 800s.For example, Wade Boggs, a Hall Of Famer, had a lifetime OPS of .858. Are we saying he wasn"t a "good" ball player since he wasn"t a 900 or 950 player?Another example is Tony Gwynn, another Hall of Famer who had a lifetime OPS of .847. Tony was also a perennial star who could not consistently produce an OPS above sầu 900.One last comment about some of the known flaws of OPS:1- It is correctly pointed out that slugging và OPB are given equal value in OPS but it has not been demonstrated statistically that this is a valid way to lớn measure these 2 components of OPS2- Slugging percentage is by itself viewed as a suspect measure of hitting prowess due to the way total bases are counted. Is a home run really worth 4 times a single, và is a double really worth twice a single, in terms of how each type of hit affects a team"s likelihood of scoring runs and/or winning games? This ratio of impact for singles, doubles, triples, và trang chủ runs and not been clearly proven statistically. Some players with limited power can have a rather high slugging percentage due to a high batting average. For example, would we generally think of a player who hits 7 trang chính runs as a power hitter? Tony Gwynn had a .511 slugging average in 1987 with .500 generally considered the benchmark of a good power hitter- yet Tony hit only 7 trang chính runs in 1987 (but he did bat .370).3- When calculating OPS, some items are counted once & some items are counted twice or more. For example, a single counts towards both OBPhường AND Slugging, so all singles are counted twice in the final OPS. How can you count the result of 1 AB twice in any statiscal measure? Walks are counted once in OPS, only counting towards OBPhường but not counting towards Slugging. So, are we thus saying a single is worth twice as much as a walk? How has this been proven in terms of true impact. Is a double worth 3 times as much as a walk (doubles count twice in Slugging & once in OBPhường vs. walks counting once - only in OBP)? Again, this has not been elucidated.OPS is useful as a general measure of a player"s ability lớn get on base by hits or walks and lớn have sầu impact hits (doubles, triples, & trang chủ runs). Just some thoughts on the pros & cons of OPS anon16195 July 31, 2008 Could have simplified the formulas & called them plate appearances. AB"s don"t include SAC, SAC fly, BB, HBP. Plate Appearance is anytime a player goes to bat. dudla June 5, 2008 I don"t understand why OPS wouldn"t be used more. I know some people say that it"s flawed and OBPhường. is more valuable, but OPS is the easiest to calculate a hitter"s performance. Post your comments