Sơ đồ sequence diagram

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A UML sequence diagram shows how a phối of objects interact in a process over time. It shows the messages that pass between participants and objects in the system, and the order in which they occur.

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To build a sequence diagram, use a UML Sequence template or starter diagram, which includes the UML Sequence stencil. Drag shapes from the stencil onto lớn the drawing canvas khổng lồ build the diagram.

Start a sequence diagram

Start Visio. Or if you have sầu a tệp tin open already, click File > New.

In the Search box, type UML sequence.

Select the UML Sequence diagram.

In the dialog box, select the blank template or one of the three starter diagrams. (A description of each one is shown on the right when you select it.) Then select either Metric Units or US Units.

Select Create.

The diagram opens. You should see the Shapes window next khổng lồ the diagram. If you don’t see it, go lớn View > Task Panes and make sure that Shapes is selected. If you still don’t see it, cliông xã the Exp& the Shapes window button on the left.

On the View tab, make sure the kiểm tra box next khổng lồ Connection Points is selected. This option makes connection points appear when you start connecting shapes.

Now, drag shapes you want lớn include in your diagram from the Shapes window to the page. To rename text labels, double-cliông chồng the labels.

Lifelines for actors và objects

Use an Actor lifeline shape for each participant, and an Object lifeline shape for each system component in your process.




Attach the beginning endpoint to the lifeline sending the message, then drag the head endpoint khổng lồ the lifeline receiving the message.

Double-clichồng the message shape to lớn create a text box, và type a name for the message.

Use a Message shape (a solid line) lớn represent a request or the transmitting of information.

Use a Return Message shape (a dashed line) khổng lồ represent a response lớn a prior message.

Use a Self Message to lớn represent a recursive sầu Gọi of an operation, or one method calling another method belonging to the same object.

Use the Asynchronous Message shape lớn show when an action might not happen immediately.

To change the shape of a connector message:

Right-clichồng the connector.

At the bottom of the pop-up menu, select from the three options (Right-Angle, Straight, Curved).

Cliông chồng và drag the connector khổng lồ change its shape.

Fragments

If one or more interactions size a loop, or require a condition khổng lồ be met lớn over the interaction, encthảm bại those interactions in a fragment shape:

Use the Loop fragment for a basic repeating interaction.

Use the Optional fragment for steps that are only performed if a certain condition is met.

Use the Alternative sầu fragment shape for an if-then or if-then-else process or interaction. The fragment comes with two sections, which let you show the alternative sầu interaction. To add another condition, drag an Interaction operand onkhổng lồ the shape. 

Drag the fragment shape to the interactions it relates to lớn. Use the sizing handles on the fragment shape to ensure it encloses all of the related interactions.

Double-cliông xã in the title corner of the fragment shape lớn add a title or short description of the process enclosed by the fragment. Below the title corner, cliông chồng the prompt if you want lớn enter the conditions that would kết thúc that process.

Activation


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Start a sequence diagram

Near the upper right corner of the page, select More templates.

In the Gallery, scroll down to lớn the UML Sequence row.

The first cống phẩm in the row represents a blank template plus the companion stencil. The other items in the row are sample diagrams that have sầu some shapes already drawn khổng lồ help you get started quickly.

Cliông xã any cửa nhà lớn see a larger preview.

When you find the diagram you want to use, clichồng its Create button.

The new diagram, with the related stencil, opens in your browser.

Lifelines for actors & objects

Use an Actor lifeline shape for each participant, & an Object lifeline shape for each system component in your process.




Attach the beginning endpoint lớn the lifeline sending the message, then drag the head endpoint khổng lồ the lifeline receiving the message.

Double-cliông xã the message shape lớn create a text box, & type a name for the message.

Use a Message shape (a solid line) to lớn represent a request or the transmitting of information.

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Use a Return Message shape (a dashed line) to lớn represent a response lớn a prior message.

Use a Self Message lớn represent a recursive sầu gọi of an operation, or one method calling another method belonging to lớn the same object.

Use the Asynchronous Message shape to lớn show when an action might not happen immediately.

To change the shape of a connector message:

Right-click the connector.

At the bottom of the pop-up menu, select from the three options (Right-Angle, Straight, Curved).

Cliông xã và drag the connector to lớn change its shape.

Fragments

If one or more interactions form a loop, or require a condition khổng lồ be met lớn kết thúc the interaction, encđại bại those interactions in a fragment shape:

Use the Loop fragment for a basic repeating interaction.

Use the Optional fragment for steps that are only performed if a certain condition is met.

Use the Alternative sầu fragment shape for an if-then or if-then-else process or interaction. The fragment comes with two sections, which let you show the alternative interaction. To add another condition, drag an Interaction operand onlớn the shape. 

Drag the fragment shape to lớn the interactions it relates to. Use the sizing handles on the fragment shape to ensure it encloses all of the related interactions.

Double-clichồng in the title corner of the fragment shape to lớn add a title or short description of the process enclosed by the fragment. Below the title corner, cliông xã the prompt if you want lớn enter the conditions that would over that process.

Activation


To build a sequence diagram, use the UML Model template, which includes a mix of UML Sequence shapes. Drag shapes from the stencil onto lớn the drawing canvas lớn build the diagram.

Start a sequence diagram

Under Template Categories, clichồng Software và Database, & then clichồng UML Model Diagram.

In the Model Explorer tree view, right-click the package in which you want khổng lồ include the static structure diagram, point to New, and cliông chồng Sequence Diagram.

A blank page appears, and the UML Sequence stencil becomes the top-most stencil. An ibé representing the diagram is added to the tree view.


Note: If the tree view isn"t visible, point to lớn View on the UML thực đơn, and then cliông xã Model Explorer.


Read on for more guidance about working with sequence diagrams.

Lifelines for actors và objects

Use an Object lifeline shape for each participant and system component in your process.

An object lifeline represents the existence of an object at a particular time. If the object is created or destroyed during the time period the diagram represents, the lifeline stops or starts at the appropriate point. An object"s destruction is marked with a large X.

Use a Lifeline shape

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khổng lồ show conditionality on an object lifeline.

Messages

Drag a Message shape onkhổng lồ the drawing page.

The message shape you choose depends upon the kind of message you want lớn sover (regular, asynchronous, procedure điện thoại tư vấn, or return).

Glue the message endpoint without the arrowhead khổng lồ a connection point

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on the lifeline of the object sending the message.

Glue the message endpoint with the arrowhead to lớn a connection point on the lifeline of the object receiving the message.

Double-cliông chồng the message, & then type or choose the message name, stereotype, sequence expression, & flow kind.

For a flat message or procedure điện thoại tư vấn, choose the operation you want the message lớn generate. If the operation doesn"t exist, cliông chồng New lớn create it.

For an asynchronous message, choose the signal you want the message khổng lồ generate. If no reception for the signal exists on the classifier that the object lifeline receiving the message is based on, clichồng New to lớn create the reception.


Tip: To indicate a message from an object to lớn itself, glue the two endpoints on an arc-shaped Message shape to two connection points on the same object lifeline.


Constraints

If one or more interactions require a condition lớn be met lớn kết thúc the interaction, encchiến bại those interactions in one of the constraint shapes:

A Constraint

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is a specification for conditions and propositions that must be maintained as true for the system to be valid. Constraints are expressed as text within braces ( ) & may be written in a predefined language, such as Object Constraint Language (OCL) or in natural language.

Drag the control handle

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at the center of the Constraint shape & glue it to a connection point on another element.

A 2-element Constraint

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applies khổng lồ two elements, such as two classes or two associations. The constraint is shown as a dashed arrow from one element khổng lồ the other with the constraint string label in braces ( ).

An OR Constraint

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indicates that any instance of a class may participate in only one association at one time. The constraint is shown as a dashed line connecting two or more associations, which must have sầu a class in common. The line is labeled by the constraint string, OR, in braces ( ).

Activation


Place an Activation bar shape on a lifeline to show when và for how long that object or participant is active sầu in the process. Typically, there will be arrows going khổng lồ & from an activation box to lớn demonstrate the flow of information.

Drag the endpoints of the Activation bar up or down to lớn make it the length that you want.